Saturday, October 04, 2014

Shishak in Jordan?

INSCRIPTION: Pharaoh-Branded Amulet Found at Ancient Copper Mine in Jordan (Megan Gannon, LiveScience).
While exploring ancient copper factories in southern Jordan, a team of archaeologists picked up an Egyptian amulet that bears the name of the powerful pharaoh Sheshonq I.

The tiny artifact could attest to the fabled military campaign that Sheshonq I waged in the region nearly 3,000 years ago, researchers say.

That military campaign being the invasion of Sheshonq I ("Shishak") mentioned in 1 Kings 14:25-26 (cf. 11:39). Here we have a tantalizing potential link between a contemporary epigraphic source and a story about the Judean kingdom just after the United Monarchy. We don't get those very often.

Review of Waters, Ancient Persia

Matt Waters, Ancient Persia. A Concise History of the Achaemenid Empire, 550–330 BCE. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014. Pp. xx, 252. ISBN 9780521253697. $29.99 (pb).

Reviewed by Catherine M. Draycott, British Institute at Ankara (
Matt Waters’s book should now be the first stop for those wanting an introduction to the Achaemenids and the study of them. It is a traditional history handbook, a chronological political narrative punctuated with social themes, but a thoroughly enjoyable one: well written and stimulating, the chapters pull the reader along through the book, and while concise it is packed with information and satisfyingly detailed, lucid discussions. A few typos aside, the copy is clean and well-illustrated with images and good maps.3 It shares with the books mentioned above the approach of the ‘New Achaemenid History’, wherein biases in the preponderance of Greek literary sources are made explicit and balanced with the different quality of information available from Near Eastern sources.4 Waters's book is a great success in these terms. The author displays equal control over the Greek and the myriad of non-Greek sources, which range from trilingual monumental royal inscriptions, clay tablets, Babylonian chronicles and the Bible to inscriptions and private letters from Egypt. From these he deftly weaves the story of this first Persian Empire, from their origins in the early Iron Age groups of Iran through to the take over of their vast territory by Alexander the Great, integrating into it the character of the sources.

Friday, October 03, 2014

Yom Kippur 2014

YOM KIPPUR, the Day of Atonement, begins this evening at sundown. An easy fast to all those observing it.

The biblical precepts for Yom Kippur appear in Leviticus 16 and 23:26-32. Some additional historical background is collected here and links.

Nikolsky and Ilan (eds.), Rabbinic Traditions between Palestine and Babylonia

Rabbinic Traditions between Palestine and Babylonia

Edited by Ronit Nikolsky University of Groningen and Tal Ilan, Freie Universität Berlin

In this book various authors explore how rabbinic traditions that were formulated in the Land of Israel migrated to Jewish study houses in Babylonia. The authors demonstrate how the new location and the unique literary character of the Babylonian Talmud combine to create new and surprising texts out of the old ones. Some authors concentrate on inner rabbinic social structures that influence the changes the traditions underwent. Others show the influence of the host culture on the metamorphosis of the traditions. The result is a complex study of cultural processes, as shaped by a unique historical moment.

Welcome to two new St Andrews colleagues

WELCOME TO DR. JUDITH WOLFE AND DR. SANDRA HÜBENTHAL, two new colleagues in the School of the Divinity at the University of St. Andrews.

Judith comes to us from Oxford University and has just taken up a Lectureship in Theology and the Arts here. Her research currently focuses on theology and literature, which special interests in epistemology, eschatology, and the Inklings, and she is the editor of The Journal of Inkling Studies. But she also did her undergraduate work at the Hebrew University, where she studied with, among others, Rachel Elior. So she has a considerable interest in Second Temple Judaism and related matters.

Sandra comes from Basel University and is here as a Teaching Fellow in New Testament Studies for 2014-15 (this post). Her research interests include the New Testament and social memory theory, and biblical traditions and economic thought. You can read more about her work in this post at the Jesus blog.

Judith and Sandra, delighted to have you both here.

Thursday, October 02, 2014

Review of Brody, Mishnah and Tosefta Studies

LIKE REVENGE: Straight-up Philology, Served Cold (Amit Gvaryahu, The Talmud Blog).

Robert Brody, Mishnah and Tosefta Studies, (Jerusalem: The Hebrew University Magnes Press, 2014)
Brody might be writing in English, but the book is decidedly Jerusalemite: a crash-course in straight-up philology, clearheaded and free of jargon, served cold.
Noted earlier here.

Salome in the arts

SALOME (daughter of Herodias, not the disciple of Jesus) is getting some attention in the theatre and in a musical production inspired by an earlier opera and graphic novel.

With Salome, Al Pacino returns to London stage after 30-year wait (Ben Beaumont-Thomas, The Guardian).
Al Pacino has said he’ll return to the London stage in 2016 in a production of Oscar Wilde’s play Salome, over 30 years after he last appeared in the West End.

Speaking to the Daily Mail, Pacino promised there would be a full production of the play that he’s already performed in New York and Los Angeles, the latter filmed in 2006 for a cinema version that is currently on release. Describing Pacino’s filmed performance, the Guardian’s Mike McCahill said that “Pacino’s vulgar, ethnically indeterminate Herod furnishes this banquet with easily digested ham: if he can’t quite bring all of Wilde’s often florid imagery into focus, he’s given it a good shout – literally so, in places.”

I'm sure Mr. Pacino makes a fine Herod. Salome herself was played by Jessica Chastain in the Los Angeles production, but she has yet to be cast for the London one.

Opera music, comic book art tell story of Salomé’s Dance (Webster Post).
Greece, N.Y.

To most of us, Salomé is a salacious symbol of sexual excess — but that wasn’t always the case. A striking new production combines the illustrations of famed comic-book artist P. Craig Russell with music to tell the biblical story of a beautiful and sensuous young dancer. Russell’s evocative graphic novel, based on Richard Strauss’s opera Salomé, will be accompanied by a reworked instrumental rendition of the opera in presentations at the University of Rochester and its Eastman School of Music next month.


In the New Testament, Salomé is not identified by name, but simply as the daughter of Herodias, the wife of King Herod. When the girl’s dance pleases the king, he promises her anything she wants. Prodded by her mother, the girl asks for the head of John the Baptist, who had condemned Herodias and Herod for their unlawful marriage.

The ancient Jewish historian Flavius Josephus also recounted the story, naming the young girl Shalome. Over the centuries, Salomé came to represent the dangers of the life of the flesh as opposed to John the Baptist’s life of the Holy Spirit, and was depicted as an alluring, lustful, and dangerous female.

Close, but not quite. The New Testament tells the story about the unnamed daughter of Herodias. Josephus tells us the name of Herodias' daughter, but he does not tell the New Testament story and he gives a different reason for John the Baptist's execution by Herod (i.e, to prevent him from fomenting a rebellion). By combining the two accounts, we infer that the girl in the New Testament story, whatever its historical merits, was meant to be Salome.

Sources Chrétiennes

FOR YOU, SPECIAL DEAL: 50 % off for 518 Sources Chrétiennes Volumes (Alin Suciu).

Wednesday, October 01, 2014

Aramean nation?

MODERN ARAMAIC WATCH: Op-Ed: Is There Really an Aramean Nation? Are the Israeli Christians part of the ancient Aramean people rather than Arabs? (Dr. Mordechai Kedar, Arutz Sheva).
One of the last things Israel's Interior Minister Gideon Saar did before resigning from the Knesset was to recognize the Israeli Christians as members of the Aramean nation. The decision caused a media uproar, especially in the Arab sector, with most critics saying that there is no Aramaic nation and that the real reason for this step was an attempt to cause a split in the Arab population of Israel so as to "divide and conquer" and gain control of the Arab sector.

This calls for an investigation and an investigation into the veracity of an Aramean nation's existence must be conducted on two planes: the historic-lingual-religious one and the civilian one.

He argues that it is valid to think in terms of an Aramean nation. Background here. There are very complicated historical and linguistic issues involved, not to speak of the political ones, and more than a newspaper article or a blog post would be necessary to address them properly.

Past posts on speakers of Aramaic in Israel are here (scroll down to third story from bottom), here, here, and links.

The PhDiva on the Jobar Synagogue

DOROTHY KING: RIP the Jobar Synagogue, Syria. With pre-destruction photos.

Background here and links.

Blood moon tetrad part 2 - Sukkot

COSMIC SYNCHRONICITY WATCH: Is lunar eclipse at Sukkot an ominous sign? (Edmon J. Rodman, JTA). Excerpt:
Jeremy Schnittman, a research astrophysicist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland and an observant Jew, is putting up his, so maybe we shouldn’t worry.

“The lunar tetrad event is perfectly normal,” Schnittman told JTA.

“Every night when you go outside on the first night of Sukkot, it is going to be a full moon. And every lunar eclipse happens during a full moon,” he said. “On average there are two lunar eclipses every year. The chance of having a lunar eclipse on Sukkot is one in six.

“The same is true for the first night of Pesach,” he said, demystifying what at first seems like an awesome coincidence.

But what about the fact that the eclipses fall on the two Jewish holidays?

“If there’s one on Sukkot, then there’s a very high chance that there will be one on Pesach,” said Schnittman, noting that the holidays are exactly six months apart.

“There’s been a lot of hubbub about ‘Four Blood Moons’ in a row,” he added. But once the plane of the orbits of the moon and earth are aligned so that an eclipse occurs, “it’s actually quite reasonable that you are going to get them again every six months for the next couple of years before the cycle moves a little bit out of alignment.”

As for the blood-like color, which is even mentioned in the book of Joel, Schnittman explained, “Full eclipses are always red. Just like the clouds on earth turn red during the sunset, during an eclipse the full moon turns red.”
So don't get excited; it's not a sign of the apocalypse. Last year's blood moon at Passover was noted and discussed here.

Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Yom Kippur

The obscure origins of Yom Kippur. It is the holiest day in Judaism, yet its intent has markedly changed and its practice today is a far cry from the rites of ancient times. (Elon Gilad, Haaretz). A long article with lots of good stuff in it. Excerpt:
Just when Yom Kippur began has been hotly debated by academics for over a century. The main question is whether it happened during the First Temple period. The evidence seems to indicate that it did not exist then.

Writing just after the First Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians, Ezekiel seems unaware of Yom Kippur. It is not on his list of holidays to be observed when the Temple would be rebuilt.
A rare relic from the First Temple period (found in the City of David, referring to Bethlehem). Photo by: Clara Amit, IAA

Neither does Zecharia seem to have any notion of it when he instructed the Jews returning from captivity on observation of fast days. When Ezra reads the Torah to the returning Jews on the first of Tishrei, they learned that they need to prepare for Sukkot, but Yom Kippur is not mentioned. This is only proof of omission, but it’s all we have.

Thus, it seems that the three biblical mentions of the Day of Atonement (Numbers 29:7-11, Leviticus 16:1-34, and Leviticus 23:26-32) were inserted by priests during the Second Temple period to validate new rites added to purify the Temple in advance of the most important holiday in the Jewish calendar at the time, Sukkot.

The priests of the Jerusalem Temple who inaugurated Yom Kippur seem to have had the 12-day Babylonian festival marking the new year, Akitu, in mind, particularly the fifth day of Akitu, which has some striking similarities to Yom Kippur that are unlikely to be coincidence.

That fifth day involved a purification ceremony called kuppuru, which involved dragging a dead ram through the temple, supposedly purifying it of impurities. Kuppuru and its Hebrew cognate kippur meant “to uncover” or specifically in this case “to remove impurity,” which means a better translation of Yom Kippur to English would be "Day of Purification."
Again, read the article soon, before it goes behind the subscription paywall.

The root meaning of kippur may have been "to cover over," rather than "to uncover," but in any case its usage in the Hebrew Bible is "to expiate" or "atone for" sin. This is a somewhat different issue from removing impurity, which potentially involves ritual impurity, which is defiling but not sinful. The concepts of sin/atonement and impurity/purification do have some overlap in biblical Hebrew, but they are generally distinct ideas. I would stick with the translation "Day of Atonement."

For lots more on the Akitu Festival, see yesterday's post here and links, notably here. As I explain in the latter post, I don't see a direct connection between the Akitu Festival and Rosh HaShanah or Yom Kippur, but I do think it's possible that both descend from an indigenously Judean re-enthronement festival that operated on similar lines.

This article also discusses the scapegoat ceremony, on which see also here, and the Yom Kippur observances by the High Priest in the Second Temple period according to the Mishnah. For Yom Kippur in the Talmud, see here. For more on the mysterious figure Azazel in the biblical Yom Kippur rites, see here.

Remains of fourth-century CE earthquake at Hippos

EXCAVATION: Archaeological findings shed light on massive 363 CE earthquake in Galilee. University of Haifa archaeologists find bones crushed under a collapsed roof, a dove-shaped gold pendant and catapult ammunition at site near Lake Kinneret (Jerusalem Post).
University of Haifa archeologists recently discovered items which have shed light on an earthquake that occurred in 363 CE in the ancient city of Hippos that overlooks Lake Kinneret.

Hippos, near modern-day Kibbutz Ein Gev overlooking the lake (the Sea of Galilee), was the site of a Greco-Roman city-state. It is just on the Israeli side of the 1949 armistice line with Syria. Susita Mountain, on which Hippos was built, is between the Kinneret Valley and the southwestern Golan mountain range, about 2 kilometers east of the lake and rising 350 meters above it. Hippos was part of the Decapolis, Ten Cities that were culturally tied more closely to Greece and Rome than to the otherwise Semitic region.

Archeologists digging at the excavation site, founded as Antioch of Hippos by Seleucid settlers and known as Susita in Hebrew, uncovered a woman’s skeleton and a gold dove-shaped pendant under the tiles of a collapsed roof. In addition, they found the marble leg of a statue and artillery from some 2,000 years ago.

Cool pendant. For lots more ancient bling, see here and here and links. And for past posts on Hippos-Sussita, see here and links.

Old Church Slavonic inscription

THE SOPHIA GLOBE: Archaeological roundup: Finds in Bulgaria include ancient coins, a basilica and an inn in Philippopolis. One of the finds mentioned in this article sounds like an important discovery for Slavonic philology:
Also on September 23, it was announced that an inscription in Cyrillic script had been found on an architectural element at the residence of the ruler of one of Bulgaria’s ancient former capitals, Preslav. The inscription shows the name Karmih (Кармих) which archaeologists believe may have been the name of the builder.

Although in the middle of the ninth century the use of the Church Slavonic alphabet was widespread, archaeologists rarely encounter such surviving inscriptions.
Follow the link for a photo. For lots more on Old Church Slavonic and why it matters to PaleoJudaica, see here, here, here, and links.

Monday, September 29, 2014

$100K raised for Third Temple plans

TEMPLE MOUNT WATCH: Temple Institute Raises $100k for Third Temple Plans. The Temple Institute’s crowdfunding campaign to raise funds for architectural plans for the Third Temple has raised $100,000 (Yaakov Levi, Arutz Sheva).
The Temple Institute’s crowdfunding campaign to raise funds for the modern architectural plans for the Third Holy Temple in Jerusalem came to a close on Rosh Hashanah after surpassing its $100,000 goal in 60 days. The initiative began on the first day of the month of Av, when Jews commemorate the destruction of the ancient Holy Temples. Almost 900 pledges have come in from more than 30 countries worldwide.

Plan away, but don't get any ideas about doing any actual digging. Background and further commentary here and links.

Dovekeepers filming in Malta

Dovekeepers’ CBS Mini-series lands in Malta with filming to start shortly (Gozo News).
4-hour CBS Mini Series ‘The Dovekeepers’ is due to start shooting in Malta shortly. ‘The Dovekeepers’ is a CBS mini-series event from executive producer Roma Downey and Mark Burnett, which will be broadcast in 2015.

‘The Dovekeepers’ is based on Alice Hoffman’s acclaimed historical novel about four extraordinary women whose lives intersect in a fight for survival at the siege of Masada. Set in ancient Israel, ‘The Dovekeepers’ is based on true events of Masada in 70 CE. After being forced out of their home in Jerusalem by the Romans, 900 Jews were ensconced in a fortress at Masada, a mountain in the Judean desert.

Loosely based. Background here and links.

Herodian public buildings under Western Wall plaza

TEMPLE MOUNT WATCH: Western Wall plaza dig reveals structures dating back to Herod. ‘Significant, beautiful’ remains, including lavish public buildings, found by archaeologists 20 meters from — but not under — Temple Mount. (The Times of Israel).
The ongoing excavations, which are taking place beneath the Western Wall plaza in the former Mughrabi Quarter of Jerusalem’s Old City, feature a Mamluk-era caravansary dating to the Middle Ages and remains of lavish public buildings from the Herodian period, over 2,000 years ago, some 20 meters (65 feet) from the Temple Mount.

Reflections on the Babylonian New Year

THE AKITU FESTIVAL: Slapping the king on the cheek in ancient Babylon. The humiliation of the king during the New Year ritual served a double purpose. (Alexander Zvielli, Jerusalem Post). Excerpt:
It was only after the king finished this list of assurances, well prepared ahead of time, that the chief priest struck him hard upon the cheek, with an open hand but as strongly as he could. The blow had to be decisive and hard, for according to tradition tears had to flow from the king’s eyes as an indication that Bel (and his wife Beliya) were friendly, an omen which purported to assure king’s future success and the prosperity of the country. If there were no tears, this signified that Bel was angry, and thus that enemies were expected to rise up and bring about the king’s downfall. It is not known whether the rite could be repeated if tears failed to appear at the first stroke. But if the performance was satisfactory, and there was a steady flow of tears, then the arms, the scepter and the crown were restored to the king, who was now expected to be prosperous and could rule safely for another year.

The priests of the huge Assyrian or Babylonian temples were rather a sophisticated lot. Their knowledge of writing, astronomy and the basic rules of a prosperous religious establishment, their role as teachers, top officials in a good and efficient government, secured for them the top position on the social scale. They were the real power behind the throne and could postpone a new king’s official coronation and recognition for several years, until he had proved himself successful in battle, in the taxation of his own people and the well-organized armed plunder of foreign lands. The priests and their temples were the first to receive a share (the largest) of the tribute and plunder: innumerable slaves, gold, silver, wood, concubines and singers brought to them by the king’s conquests and robberies of the foreign lands. The priests taught the king and his chosen ancestors how to discipline the people and the army, all for their own benefit.

However, the humiliation of the king during the New Year ritual served a double purpose: It demonstrated to the king that without his crown, sword and scepter he was just another ordinary mortal, whose fate depended on the mighty gods and their humble servants.

He might have been all-powerful, ruling over the entire world, but the pain of being hit in the face in this manner was meant to make him humble, more aware of his duties and obligations, inspiring him to take care of his promises, or face consequences.
As for the political reflections, we've all encountered bureaucrats and politicians whom we thought could benefit from slapping, but it doesn't seem to have made the ancient Mesopotamian rulers notably more humble.

UPDATE: A couple of earlier posts on the Akitu Festival are here and here.

UPDATE (1 October): More here.

Sunday, September 28, 2014

Hugoye 17.2

HUGOYE: JOURNAL OF SYRIAC STUDIES has published a new issue: Volume 17.2 (Summer 2014). Follow the link for the TOC and for links to the articles, etc., all online for free. This one has articles on Garshuni, plus the usual conference and project reports and book reviews.

Congratulations to Eelco Glas

FELLOWSHIP: Eelco Glas new Florentino García Martínez Research Master Scholar.
The Qumran Institute of the Faculty of Theology and Religious Studies at the University of Groningen is delighted to announce that the second Florentino García Martínez Research Master Scholarship for excellent students has been awarded to Eelco Glas. Prof. Mladen Popovic presented him with the scholarship during the opening of the Academic Year in the Der Aa-kerk in Groningen on 3 September 2014.
Plus you get flowers with this one!

Follow the link for more information. And note this: "The call for applications for the Florentino García Martínez Scholarship for next year’s cohort in the Faculty’s Research Master in Religion and Culture will be published soon."

Last year's winner was noted here.